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The costs of reform: China shakes up its state-owned enterprises

In 2015, Chinese factories produced more than 800 million metric tons of steel—nearly eight times as much as the United States produced in the same year and more than the entire world produced in 1995. By all accounts, that figure reflects an overcapacity problem: China’s big steel firms are increasingly turning to foreign markets to absorb their excess output, but because of lower prices and reduced domestic demand, they are still struggling to make money, losing nearly $10 billion in 2015.

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Sydney-based globalization expert Salvatore Babones is available to speak on the Chinese economy (demographics, growth, technology), the Belt & Road Initiative, global trade networks, and Australia-China relations. Contact: